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[主观题]

Much social talk,【36】from casual conversation to formal【37】speech has an aim other than to

convey information or to achieve agreement on disputed issues. Individuals talk and listen to one【38】, in part simply to enhance sociability--to【39】their enjoyment in being together. Sometimes this is called speech to entertain, but this traditional label has【40】been very satisfactory. Social talk serves a more important function【41】merely to pass time【42】.

A great deal of the【43】and the listening that occurs【44】casual circumstances may seem to be【45】, in the sense that the discourse is relaxed, relatively formless, and expressive of strong and intimate feelings.【46】, such speaking and listening are highly valued. Normal individuals dread being deprived【47】companionship. If required to be【48】for a time, they may mm on the【49】or television, not to learn something,【50】not even to be entertained,【51】to feel the sociability of hearing human speech. The【52】purpose of much speech (including most【53】and many public speeches) is to knit together【54】closely and more pleasantly the ties of【55】.

(56)

A.dividing

B.ranging

C.gathering

D.arranging

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更多“Much social talk,【36】from casual conversation to formal【37】speech has an aim other than to”相关的问题

第1题

Any discussion of English conversation, like any English conversation, must begin with T
he Weather. And in this spirit of observing traditional protocol, I shall quote Dr Johnson's famous comment that "When two English meet, their first talk is of the weather", and point out that this observation is as accurate now as it was over two hundred years ago. This, however, is the point at which most commentators either stop, or try, and fail, to come up with a convincing explanation for the English “obsession” with the weather. They fail because their premise is mistaken: they assume that our conversations about the weather are conversations about the weather. In other words, they assume that we talk about the weather because we have a keen interest in the subject. Most of them then try to figure out what it is about the English weather that is so fascinating. Bill Bryson, for example, concludes that the English weather is not at all fascinating, and presumably that our obsession with it is therefore inexplicable: “To an outsider, the most striking thing about the English weather is that there is not very much of it. All those phenomena that elsewhere give nature an edge of excitement, unpredictability and danger - tornados, monsoons, hailstorms – are almost wholly unknown in the British Isles.” Jeremy Paxman takes offence at Bryson's dismissive comments and argues that the English weather is intrinsically fascinating: Bryson misses the point. The interest is less in the phenomena themselves, but in uncertainty… one of the few things you can say about England with absolute certainty is that it has a lot of weather. It may not include tropical cyclones but life at the edge of an ocean and the edge of a continent means you can never be entirely sure what you're going to get. My research has convinced me that both Bryson and Paxman are missing the point, which is that our conversations about the weather are not really about the weather at all: English weather-speak is a form. of code, evolved to help us overcome our natural reserve and actually talk to each other. Everyone knows, for example, that “Nice day, isn't it?”, “Ooh, isn't it cold?” and other variations on the theme are not requests for meteorological data: they are ritual greetings or conversation-starters. In other words, English weather-speak is a form. of “grooming talk” - the human equivalent of what is known as “social grooming” among our primate cousins, where they spend hours grooming each other's fur, even when they are perfectly clean, as a means of social bonding. Questions1-5 are based on Passage One.

(1). According to the author, most commentators' explanations for the English love for weather talk are ______.

A、misleading

B、incorrect

C、absurd

D、biased

(2). As is stated in the passage, most commentators try to find out ______.

A、why the English weather is so unique

B、whether the English enjoy their weather

C、why the English are keen on the topic of weather

D、whether the English really talk about weather when they do so

(3). In Bill Bryson's opinion, the English obsession with their weather is ______.

A、interesting

B、unjustified

C、exaggerated

D、understandable

(4). Disapproving of Bill Bryson's opinion, Jeremy Paxman argues that ______.

A、the English talk about their weather because it is unpredictable

B、the English don't talk about weather as often as the outsiders think

C、the English weather can be as exciting as anywhere else's

D、the English weather talk is merely a form. of small talk

(5). According to the author, English weather-speak is similar to primates' social grooming in that they are both ______.

A、ways of greeting

B、means of social bonding

C、fascinating topics for anthropologists

D、inexplicable phenomena to outsiders

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第2题

We unemployed share a social stigma (耻辱) similar to that of the rape victim. Whether con

We unemployed share a social stigma (耻辱) similar to that of the rape victim. Whether consciously or subconsciously, much of the work-ethic driven public feels that you've somehow "asked for it". Secretly wanted to lose your job and "flirted (幻想)" with unemployment through your attitude- probably dressed in a way to invite it (left the vest unbuttoned on your three-piece suit).

But the worse of it isn't society's work-ethic morality; it's your own, which you never knew you had. You find out how much self-satisfaction was gained from even the most simple work-related task: a well-worded letter, a well-handled phone call, even a clean file. Being useful to yourself isn't enough.

But then almost everyone has heard about the need to be a useful member of society. What you didn't know about was the loneliness. You've spent your life almost constantly surrounded by people, in classes, in dorms and at work. To suddenly find yourself with only your cat to talk to all day distorts (歪曲) your sense of reality. You begin to worry that fights of fancy might become one way.

But you always were, and still are, stronger than that. You maintain balance and perspective, mainly through resorting frequently to sarcasm (嘲笑) and irreverence. Although something going wrong in any aspect of your life now seems to push you into temporary despair much more easily than before, you have some very important things to hang on to-- people who care, your sense of humor, your talents, your cat and your hopes.

And beyond that, you've gained something- a little more knowledge and a lot more compassion. You've learned the value of the routine you scorned and the importance of the job you took for granted. But most of all, you've learned what a "7.6 percent unemployment rate" really means.

What is the proper title for this passage?

A.How the Unemployed Are Looked Down Upon

B.How Important to Be Employed

C.How It Feels to Be Out of Work

D.How to Gain a Little More Knowledge and Compassion

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第3题

What title would best suit this talk?A.Money and its importance.B.Money and social status.

What title would best suit this talk?

A.Money and its importance.

B.Money and social status.

C.A personal view of money.

D.How money is handled at bank.

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第4题

There are some social problems in the United States. And drug abuse has come to be 【21】___
___ as one of the most challenging social problems facing the nation. Indeed, the very word" drug" excites strong emotion, and opinion 【22】______ since the late 1960s have shown that "drug problem" is 【23】______ by most Americans as a major 【24】______ to the society, particularly to its younger members.

Drug abuse is a social problem because it has a wide range of social 【25】______ ,-- some obvious and measurable, some hidden and difficult to quantify. There is strong 【26】______ between some forms of drug use and crime. The use of alcohol, for example, is highly 【27】______ with violent crime. Heroin dependence, too, is related to crime, 【28】______ not so directly to violence. Heroin addicts (those who depend on heroin) may need as 【29】______ as $ 100 a day to support their habit, and most addicts find that they must 【30】______ in order to collect these sums. In 【31】______ , users of illegal drugs have to rely directly or indirectly 【32】______ criminal networks that manufacture, 【33】______ , and distribute these drugs. The profits from these illegal commerce are 【34】______ and the criminal organizations have be come deeply 【35】______ in the supply of heroin and other drugs.

Drug dependence does a lot of harm in 【36】______ . of personal health and safety. The 【37】______ user of drugs is much more likely than a member of general population to be killed or to 【38】______ suicide, either deliberately or accidentally. Drug dependence, too, may 【39】______ other areas of individual's life, 【40】______ from the home to the work place to personal relationships with friends.

【21】

A.regarded

B.respected

C.referred

D.treated

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第5题

"HI there. How's it going7" "Oh, fine. Fine. How about this weather, huh?" "Well, I guess

"HI there. How's it going7"

"Oh, fine. Fine. How about this weather, huh?"

"Well, I guess we can always use the rain."

What's that? This story? Oh, just a little look at small talk. You know; those seemingly meaningless conversations you have dozens of times a day. Maybe you're waiting for the elevator. Or in a line at the bank. It all seems pretty trivial. Idle chatter about traffic doesn't do much more than fill the air with empty words that are quickly forgotten. But you should know that small talk actually has a big place in our lives.

Pat Oliver, assistant professor on arts, says that, "Left unchecked, small talk can be an invasion. It's so powerful. It does something to you." "Every morning after spending an hour and a half on the freeway I start the day with small talk with my secretary," Oliver says, "If I don't make small connection with another person, I can't work."

What causes it? As a rule, you're either trying to force something into your life, or you're using conversation as an invisible force field to keep them out. You can be wanting to connect with another person, and small talk is your introduction to more meaningful conversation.

The way people use small talk is usually determined by where they happen to be at the time. Take the elevator, for instance. Now there's prime territory. Nobody knows anyone and there's no reason no start a conversation, but invariably, someone does. Making conversation in such peaceful social settings, according to oliver, "can confirm your territory. It's a way of feeling like and accepted."

The topics of small talk don't matter. In fact, you don't want anything more taxing than the weather or tile traffic. It's non-threatening talk in a threatening situation. However, the rules change quickly when you're with lots of people doing lots of talking.

Let's say you're at a party. Now it's time to use small talk as a way of making others feel more comfortable around you, so you don't look silly standing by the food table alone all night.

"Small talk", as interpreted by the author,______.

A.has no real function in communication at all

B.is usually meaningless and therefore useless

C.is not as idle as it may seem to be

D.is restricted to certain topics only

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第6题

"Hi there. How's it going?" "Oh, fine, fine. How about this weather, huh?" "Well, I guess

"Hi there. How's it going?"

"Oh, fine, fine. How about this weather, huh?"

"Well, I guess we can always use the rain."

What's that? This story? Oh, just a little look at small talk. You know, those seemingly meaningless conversations you have dozens of times a day. Maybe you're waiting for the elevator. Or in a line at the bank. It all seems pretty trivial. Idle chatter about traffic doesn't do much more than fill the air with empty words that are quickly forgotten. But you should know that small talk actually has a big place in our lives.

Pat Oliver, assistant professor on arts, says that, "Left unchecked, small talk can be an invasion. It's so powerful. It does something to you." "Every morning after spending an hour and a half on the freeway I start the day with small talk with my secretary," Oliver says, "If I don't make small connection with another person, I can't work."

What causes it? As a rule, you're either trying to force something into your life, or you're using conversation as an invisible force field to keep them out. You can be wanting to connect with another person, and small talk is your introduction to more meaningful conversation.

The way people use small talk is usually determined by where they happen to be at the time. Take the elevator, for instance. Now there's prime territory. Nobody knows anyone and there's no reason to start a conversation, but invariably, someone does. Making conversation in such peaceful social settings, according to Oliver, "can confirm your territory. It's a way of feeling liked and accepted."

The topics of small talk don't matter. In fact, you don't want anything more taxing than the weather or the traffic. It's non-threatening talk in a threatening situation. However, the rules change quickly when you're with lots of people doing lots of talking.

Let's say you're at a party. Now it's time to use small talk as a way of making others feel more comfortable around you, so you don't look silly standing by the food table alone all night.

"Small talk'", as interpreted by the author, ______.

A.is not as idle as it may seem to be

B.is usually meaningless and therefore useless

C.has no real function in communication at all

D.is restricted to certain topics only

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第7题

Television, it is often said, keeps one【36】about current events, allows one to follow the【
37】development in science and politics, and【38】an endless series of programs which are both【39】and stimulating. The most distant【40】and the strangest customs are brought right【41】one's sitting-room. It could be argued that the radio performs this【42】just as well, but on television everything is much more living, much more【43】. Yet here is a danger. The television screen itself has a terrible, almost physical fascination for us. We get【44】used to looking at its movements, so【45】on its flickering pictures, that it begins to【46】our lives. A friend of【47】told me the other day that his television set had broken【48】and that he and his family had suddenly found that they had far more time to do things, and that they had【49】begun to talk to each other again. It makes one think,【50】it!

There are many other arguments for and against television. The poor【51】of its programs is often criticized. But it is undoubtedly a great comfort to many【52】elderly people. And does it corrupt or instruct our children? I think we must realize that television【53】is neither good nor bad. It is the uses【54】which it is put that determine its【55】to society.

(61)

A.informative

B.informed

C.knowledgeable

D.familiar

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第8题

Most children with healthy appetites are ready to eat almost anything that is offered them
and a child rarely dislikes food (31) it is badly cooked. The way a meal is cooked and served is most important and an attractively served meal will often improve a child's appetite. Never ask a child (32) he likes or dislikes a food and never discuss likes and dislikes in front of him or allow (33) else to do so. If the father says he hates fat meat or the mother refuses vegetables, in the child's hearing he is (34) to copy this procedure. Take it (35) granted that he likes everything and he probably will, Nothing healthful should be omitted from the meal because of a supposed dislike. At meal times it is a good (36) to give a child a small portion and let him come back for a second helping rather than give him as (37) as he is likely to eat all at once. Do not talk too much to the child (38) meal times, but let him get on with his food; and do not (39) him to leave the table immediately after a meal or he will soon learn to swallow his food so he can hurry back to his toys. Under (40) circumstances must a child be coaxed (哄骗) or forced to eat.A.if B.until C.that D.unless

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第9题

"Intelligence" at best is an assumptive construct--the meaning of the word has never been
clear. There is 【21】______ agreement on the kinds of behavior. 【22】______ by the term than there is on how to interpret or classify them. 【23】______ it is generally agreed that a person of high intelligence is one who can grasp ideas 【24】______ , make distinctions, reason logically, and make use of verbal and mathematical 【25】______ in solving problems. An intelligence test is a 【26】______ measure of a child's capacity for learning, 【27】______ for learning the kinds of things required in school. It does not measure character, social adjustment, physical 【28】______ , manual skills, or artistic abilities. It was not designed 【29】______ such purposes. To criticize it for such failure is roughly 【30】______ to criticizing a thermometer for not measuring wind velocity.

The other thing we have to 【31】______ is that the assessment of the intelligence of any 【32】______ is essentially a comparative affair. We must be sure that the 【33】______ with which we are comparing our subjects provides a" valid" or "fair" comparison. 【34】______ this, any test performed involves at least three factors: the 【35】______ to do one's best, the knowledge required for under standing 【36】______ you have to do, and the 【37】______ ability to do it. The first two must be equal for all that are being compared, if any comparison 【38】______ intelligence is to be made.

No one is 【39】______ interested in the marks a little child gets on his test; instead we are interested in 【40】______ we can conclude from his mark on the test that the child will do better or worse than other children of his age at tasks which we think require "general intelligence".

【21】

A.too much

B.less

C.more

D.so much

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第10题

Proper street behavior. in the United States requires a nice balance of attention and inat
tention. You are supposed to look at a 【21】______ just enough to show that you're 【22】______ of his presence. If you look too little, you appear arrogant or furtive (鬼鬼祟祟的), too much, 【23】______ you're inquisitive. Usually what happens is that people 【24】______ each other until they are about eight feet 【25】______ , at which point both cast down their eyes. Sociologist Dr. Erving Goffman 【26】______ this as "a kind of dimming of lights."

Much of eye behavior. is so 【27】______ that we react to it only on the intuitive level. The next time you have a 【28】______ with someone who makes you feel liked, notice what he does with his eyes. 【29】______ are he looks at you more often than is usual with 【30】______ a little longer than the normal. You interpret this as a sign of a polite one 【31】______ he is interested in you as a person 【32】______ just in the topic of conversation. Probably you also feel that he is both 【33】______ and sincere.

All this has been demonstrated in elaborate 【34】______ . Subjects sit and talk in the psychologist's laboratory, 【35】______ of the fact that their eye behavior. is being 【36】______ from a one-way vision screen. In one fairly typical experiment, 【37】______ were induced to cheat while performing a task, then were 【38】______ and observed. It was found that those who had 【39】______ met the interviewer's eyes less often than was 【40】______ , an indication that "shifty eyes" to use the mystery writers' stock phrase can actually be a tip-off to an attempt to deceive or to feelings of guilt.

【21】

A.friend

B.foreigner

C.passerby

D.stranger

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